India’s National Anthem, “Jana Gana Mana”, is an adoption from the writings of the poet and playwright, Rabindranath Tagore. The Lines of India’s National Anthem are taken from Rabindranath Tagore’s song, “Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata”. The Original was written in Bengali and the full song has 5 stanzas. The text was first published in 1905, in an issue of Tatwabodhini Patrika.
In 1911, the session held by Indian National Congress, in Calcutta, on 27th December, become the first location where the song was sung publicly and Tagore sang it himself. On February 28th, 1919, Tagore wrote down an English interpretation of the full Bengali song, and titled it “The Morning Song of India”. This was requested by Dr. Cousins of the Besant Theosophical College at Madnapalle, where Tagore was Visiting.
The melody of the full song, slow-paced, and in raga Alhaiya Bilawal, is attributed to Rabindranath himself. Rabindranath’s Grade-Nephew, Dinendranath Tagore, a great musician himself, may have helped conceive it. Another harmonized score was created when the song was played by Hamburg Radio Symphony Orchestra in Germany in 1942.
On 24 January 1950 ( before India’s first Republic Day on 26th ), the first stanza of Tagore’s “Bharoto Bhagya Bidhata” was officially declared as the National Anthem of India by the Constituent Assembly of India. Subhash Chandra Vose was key in making the selection of the National Anthem. Subsequently, he adapted from Tagore’s original, another version of the song with Hindi and Urdu words, Called “Shubh Sukh Chain”.
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